SEOW Members Crystal Reinhart, Doug Smith and others in the School of Social Work at UIUC recently published an article on youth opioid use based on data from the Illinois Youth Survey. Here is the citation and the abstract:
Barton, A., Reinhart, C.A., Campbell, C., Smith, D.C., & Albarracin, D. (2020). Opioid use at the transition to emerging adulthood: A latent class analysis of non-medical use of prescription opioids and heroin use. Addictive Behaviors, 114. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106757
Background: Although rates of nonmedical opioid use are highest in late adolescence and emerging adulthood, efforts to understand the extent of the heterogeneity in opioid misuse during this time have been limited. The current study aimed to derive and define typologies of opioid use in high school students at the onset of emerging adulthood.
Methods: Survey responses from a statewide sample of high school students aged 18 and 19 (N = 26,223) were analyzed. Group-based comparisons between participants reporting opioid use and those not reporting opioid use
were conducted. Among those reporting opioid use (n = 1,636), we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to identify heterogeneous subgroups of opioid users on the basis of non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) and heroin use. The resulting classes were then compared across various risk and protective factors using multinominal logistic regression.
Results: Consistent differences were observed between participants using opioids and participants not using opioids, with moderate to large effect sizes. Results from LCA revealed three subclasses: NMUPO-Any Use, NMUPO To Get High, and Heroin Use. Subclass differences were observed for non-opioid substance use, mental health, and demographics.
Conclusions: Findings from this study underscore the variability of youth who engage in opioid use in late adolescence. Results also indicate that opioid use during adolescence is likely indicative of a broader set of substance use and mental health issues.
CPRD has recently released “Strata Reports” that report the frequencies for all variables covered in the Illinois Youth Survey for Illinois youth in 8th, 10th and 12th grades living in urban, suburban and rural areas. CPRD was unable to produce the strata report for the City of Chicago that is typically released due to an inadequate sample size. CPRD was also unable to produce an overall statewide report also due to sample size limitations resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic.
Review these strata reports here: https://iys.cprd.illinois.edu/results/state
Reported data tables in each strata report are divided into six areas:
- STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS includes demographic data and other information about the surveyed population.
- DRUG PREVALENCE AND BEHAVIORS Includes substance use behaviors including type, frequency, consequences, and recovery.
- DRUG USE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Includes factors in students, their families, and their communities that may increase or reduce the risk of youth substance use disorder, such as access to substances and parental communication about expectations to not use drugs.
- INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT, VIOLENCE AND DELINQUENCY includes experiences with violence and high-risk behaviors including bullying, fighting, and gambling.
- ACADEMIC AND SCHOOL EXPERIENCES includes youth opinions of their academic experiences, their school environment, and engagement in youth activities.
- MENTAL, SOCIAL, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH includes a variety of mental and physical health issues including thoughts about depression/suicide, nutrition, and physical activity (includes estimates of obesity).
For questions contact scott[at]cprd[dot]illinois[dot]edu
The Medicaid 1115 Substance Use Disorder Demonstration waiver will introduce a limited piloting of certain services that are currently not directly available to Illinois Medicaid beneficiaries. These additional services are expected to inform the state’s efforts to transform the behavioral health system in Illinois as some beneficiaries will have access to less costly community-based services, which are expected to help beneficiaries improve their health and avoid costlier services provided in an institution. The demonstration period is July 1, 2018 through June 30, 2023 and includes 10 pilots addressing inpatient treatment, clinically managed withdrawal, case management, peer recovery support, crisis intervention, home visiting, community integration, supported employment, intensive in-home, and respite services. The project has six goals:
- Increased rates of identification, initiation, and engagement in treatment;
- Increased adherence to and retention in treatment;
- Reductions in overdose deaths, particularly those due to opioids;
- Reduced utilization of emergency departments and inpatient hospital settings for treatment where the utilization is preventable or medically inappropriate through improved access to other continuum of care services;
- Fewer readmissions to the same or higher level of care where the readmission is preventable or medically inappropriate; and
- Improved access to care for physical health and behavioral health conditions among beneficiaries.
The Center for Prevention Research and Development (CPRD) will be conducting an overall evaluation of these pilot services using Interrupted Time Series to compare trend data pre- and post-wavier and individual pilot evaluations using Propensity Score Matching analyses to compare groups. The evaluation will be conducted in partnership with the Office of Medicaid Innovation at the University of Illinois and funded by the Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services.
CPRD has just released “Youth Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana Use in Illinois” a White Paper report based on data from the 2018 Illinois Youth Survey based on information from over 11,000 8th, 10th and 12th grade students. The report compares youth use, perceptions of these substances, sources, and consequences of use. Please see the report for more information.
Youth Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana Use in Illinois
For a FREE printed copy of this report or to request multiple printed copies, contact CPRD
This newly developed interactive visualization allows you to look at trends in alcohol, tobacco, e-cig, marijuana and other drug use behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, sources and preferences.
Also, statistical data (not the raw data) can be downloaded to Excel, Powerpoint or other formats for your own use – note the share button on the lower right of the page.
Youth Substance in Illinois: 2008-2018. Interactive Trend data for 248 variables