The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based program that gathers information on risk factors among Illinois adults 18 years of age and older through monthly telephone surveys. Established in 1984 as a collaboration between the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state health departments, the BRFSS has grown to be the primary source of information on behaviors and conditions related to the leading causes of death for adults in the general population.
To access the Illinois data, including state, strata, and county data from 1998-2021, please visit: http://www.idph.state.il.us/brfss/
Vaping and E-Cigarettes Within the Evolving Tobacco Quitline Landscape
This article summarizes the vaping research literature as it pertains to tobacco quitlines and describes vaping assessment, treatment, and evaluation quitline practices. It also presents 2014−2018 registration data (vaping in the past 30 days, number of use days, use for quitting smoking, and intentions to quit vaping) from 24 public quitlines (23 states and District of Columbia) and 110,295 enrollees to employer-sponsored quitlines. Trends in vaping rates over time, by state, and by age group are described.
This paper outlines research and evaluation priorities to inform the future quitline treatment landscape with respect to vaping. The quitline community is positioned to increase the likelihood that vaping has a positive impact for adults who smoke through harm reduction or supporting cessation and has opportunities to expand impacts on youth and young adult vaping prevention and cessation.
Am J Prev Med 2021;60(3S2):S142−S153. © 2020 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Vaping and E-Cigarettes Within the Evolving Tobacco Quitline Landscape
In 2012, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) began a project designed to address underage drinking (ages 12-17) and prescription drug misuse (ages 12-25) in high-risk communities using the Strategic Prevention Framework.
In Illinois, underage drinking was identified as a significant issue as early as 2004 through an assessment process conducted by the State Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (SEOW). It has continued to be a significant issue for the state through subsequent assessments in 2008 and 2012. Illinois was awarded the SPF-PFS grant in October of 2014 through a grant application submitted by the Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS).
The SPF-PFS grant provided an opportunity to identify and fund sub-recipient communities throughout Illinois to utilize the SPF model (shown below) to target the most pressing contributing factors to underage drinking using a mix of evidence-based programs, policies and practices based on their local cultural context.
The SPF-PFS project officially concluded activities on September 29, 2019 after five years of funding. Five sites were granted continuation funding through June 30, 2020. These reports are the final reports from this project.
5 year project report:
SPF-PFS Final Evaluation Report, October 2019
Report from the five continuation SPF-PFS sites:
SPF-PFS Evaluation Report July 2020 Addendum
SEOW Members Crystal Reinhart, Doug Smith and others in the School of Social Work at UIUC recently published an article on youth opioid use based on data from the Illinois Youth Survey. Here is the citation and the abstract:
Barton, A., Reinhart, C.A., Campbell, C., Smith, D.C., & Albarracin, D. (2020). Opioid use at the transition to emerging adulthood: A latent class analysis of non-medical use of prescription opioids and heroin use. Addictive Behaviors, 114. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106757
Background: Although rates of nonmedical opioid use are highest in late adolescence and emerging adulthood, efforts to understand the extent of the heterogeneity in opioid misuse during this time have been limited. The current study aimed to derive and define typologies of opioid use in high school students at the onset of emerging adulthood.
Methods: Survey responses from a statewide sample of high school students aged 18 and 19 (N = 26,223) were analyzed. Group-based comparisons between participants reporting opioid use and those not reporting opioid use
were conducted. Among those reporting opioid use (n = 1,636), we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to identify heterogeneous subgroups of opioid users on the basis of non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) and heroin use. The resulting classes were then compared across various risk and protective factors using multinominal logistic regression.
Results: Consistent differences were observed between participants using opioids and participants not using opioids, with moderate to large effect sizes. Results from LCA revealed three subclasses: NMUPO-Any Use, NMUPO To Get High, and Heroin Use. Subclass differences were observed for non-opioid substance use, mental health, and demographics.
Conclusions: Findings from this study underscore the variability of youth who engage in opioid use in late adolescence. Results also indicate that opioid use during adolescence is likely indicative of a broader set of substance use and mental health issues.
CPRD has recently released “Strata Reports” that report the frequencies for all variables covered in the Illinois Youth Survey for Illinois youth in 8th, 10th and 12th grades living in urban, suburban and rural areas. CPRD was unable to produce the strata report for the City of Chicago that is typically released due to an inadequate sample size. CPRD was also unable to produce an overall statewide report also due to sample size limitations resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic.
Review these strata reports here: https://iys.cprd.illinois.edu/results/state
Reported data tables in each strata report are divided into six areas:
- STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS includes demographic data and other information about the surveyed population.
- DRUG PREVALENCE AND BEHAVIORS Includes substance use behaviors including type, frequency, consequences, and recovery.
- DRUG USE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Includes factors in students, their families, and their communities that may increase or reduce the risk of youth substance use disorder, such as access to substances and parental communication about expectations to not use drugs.
- INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT, VIOLENCE AND DELINQUENCY includes experiences with violence and high-risk behaviors including bullying, fighting, and gambling.
- ACADEMIC AND SCHOOL EXPERIENCES includes youth opinions of their academic experiences, their school environment, and engagement in youth activities.
- MENTAL, SOCIAL, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH includes a variety of mental and physical health issues including thoughts about depression/suicide, nutrition, and physical activity (includes estimates of obesity).
For questions contact scott[at]cprd[dot]illinois[dot]edu
The findings from a national sample of adolescents and young adults show that electronic cigarette use and dual use of electronic cigarettes and cigarettes are significant underlying risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019. Health care providers, parents, schools, community-based organizations, and policymakers must help make youth aware of the connection between smoking and vaping and coronavirus disease.
Electronic Cigarette Use and Covid-19
To examine youth substance use trends and patterns, CDC analyzed data from the 2009–2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. This report presents estimated prevalence of current (i.e., previous 30-days) marijuana use, prescription opioid misuse, alcohol use, and binge drinking and lifetime prevalence of marijuana, synthetic marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, injection drug use, and prescription opioid misuse among U.S. high school students. Findings highlight opportunities for expanding evidence-based prevention policies, programs, and practices that aim to reduce risk factors and strengthen protective factors related to youth substance use, in conjunction with ongoing initiatives for combating the opioid crisis.
Prescription Opioid Misuse and Use of Alcohol and Other Substances Among High School Students — Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 2019
In a recent report published by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, a new measurement tool known as the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed. The YRBSS monitors six categories of health-related behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including, alcohol and other drug use, tobacco use and a variety of other unhealthy behaviors.
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)
A study published by Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, (ICJIA) examines alcohol as the most commonly misused substance among youth in the United States. This article explores literature on underage drinking and interventions available to address the problem.
Youth Alcohol Use: National and Illinois Trends, Consequences, and Interventions
The following article published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, provides resources and support for those who may be struggling with various substance use disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic.
“The National Institute on Drug Abuse has put together information on the potential implications of this pandemic on those who struggle with substance use disorder. The social distancing that is required during this COVID-19 outbreak has put a strain on families impacted by addiction. Self-imposed isolation can disconnect us from the very tools that keep us resilient and strong, making us vulnerable to fear.”
COVID-19: Online and Remote Resources for Addiction Support